Pakistani architecture refers to the various structures that were built during different periods of what is now Pakistan. By the middle of the third millennium BC, the Indus civilization began, leading to the development of an advanced urban culture, where the first large-scale rescue facilities were developed in areas including today’s Pakistan. Some of them survived to this day. Gandara style Buddhist architecture was borrowed from ancient Greek elements. These remnants can be seen in the Gandira capital Tamil.

In Pakistani architecture there are four periods: ex-Islamic, Islamic, colonial, post-colonial. With the start of the Indus civilization around mid-3000 BC, the first developed urban culture in the area consisted of large buildings, some of which survived to this day. [603] Mohenjo Daro, Harapa, and Kot Diji are now used as tourist attractions as one of the pre-Islamic settlements. The rise of Buddhism and the influence of Greek civilization lead to the development of the Greek-Buddhist style that began in the first century BC. The most important point of this era was the Kandara style. An example of Buddhist architecture is the ruins of the Buddhist monastery Takht-i-Bahi in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa.

The arrival of Islam in Pakistan today meant the sudden end of Buddhist architecture in the region and the natural transition to predominantly pictureless Islamic architecture. The most important Eid-Islamic style building still standing is the tomb of Shah Rukn-i-Alam in Multan. In the Mughal period, design elements of Persian Islamic architecture were often fused with Hindustan art. Lahore is the occasional residence of the Mughal ruler and includes many important buildings of the empire. Among them are the most famous Bad Shahhi Mosque, Lahore’s fortress with the famous Alam Giri gate, colorful Mughal-style Wazir Khan Mosque, Lahore’s Shalimar Gardens and Thatta’s Shahjahan Mosque. In the British colonial period, it is a typical Indo-European style building with a mixture of European and Indo-Islamic components. Post-colonial national identity is expressed in modern architectures such as Faisal Mosque, Minar-e-Pakistan, and Mazar-e-Quaid. Some examples of architectural infrastructure that show the influence of British design can be found in Lahore, Peshawar, and Karachi.

Indus Valley civilization 
archaeologists excavated numerous ancient cities, such as Mohenjo Daro, Harrappa, and Kot Diji, which have extensive roads well unified and proper structure, with full consideration for sanitation and drainage. Most of the found brick constructions are public buildings such as baths and workshops. Wood and soil were used as building materials. There are no massive temples like those found in other ancient cities. As civilizations in the Indus valley collapsed, the buildings also suffered considerable damage. View of the Mohenjo-Daro towards the Great Bath.

Unfortunately, this civilization, called Harappan, is hardly known. The reason is that for some unknown reason and its language disappeared around 1700, with no known. Its existence was revealed only in the mid-19th century (the text refers to 1920). And excavation was limited. Proof of survival represents a sophisticated civilization. Cities such as Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro (“dead city”) had a population of about 35,000 and were arranged according to the grid system. Residents lived in baked brick houses without windows around the central courtyard. These cities also had fortresses with public and religious buildings, large pools for ritual baths, grain warehouses for food storage, and complex systems of covered drains and sewers.

Buddhism and Hindu Architecture With 
the rise of Buddhism, outstanding architectural monuments have been re-developed and continue today. In addition, under the influence of Persian and Greek, Greco Buddhist styles were developed from the first century. The most important point of this era reached the pinnacle of Gandara style. Remnants of important Buddhist buildings are clearly recognizable Greek statues and style elements, such as support pillars next to the ruins of other epochs, found in the Gandhara capital Taxila, at the northern extremity of Punjab. Stupas and other buildings. A particularly beautiful example of Buddhist architecture is the ruins of the Buddhist monastery Takht-i-Bahi in the northwest region.

Mogul architecture
The first arrival of Islam in Pakistan today in Sindh during the eighth century AD meant the end of a sudden Buddhist architecture. However, a smooth transition to the Islamic architecture, mainly without paintings, took place. The way the early mosques were built with ornaments strongly oriented the Arab style. From the early stages of Islam in South Asia, early examples of Islam were the mihrablose mosque of Van Hor, a Muslim who has been worshiping in South Africa since 727. Under Delhi Sultan, the Persian-Ct style was influenced by the Arabs. The most important feature of this style is the Iwan, which has walls on three sides with one end completely open. More features are the spacious prayer room, the use of round domes and painted tiles with mosaics and geometric samples. The most important of the few fully discovered Persian-style buildings are the tombs of Shah Rukn-i-Alam, built in 1320-1324 in Mahan. In the early 16th century, Indian Islamic architecture was booming. In the Mughal period, elements of Islamic-Persian architecture were often produced in fusion with Hindustan art. Lahore, the occasional residence of the Mughal ruler, is home to the Badshahi Mosque (1673-1674), the fortifications of Lahore (16th and 17th centuries), the famous Alam Giri Gate, the ornate Wazir Khan Mosque ), (1634-1635) as well as numerous Islamic mosques and tombs. Also Shahjahan mosque of Thatta in Sindh originates from the Mughals period. One, but partly different stylistic characteristics. Originally, the countless tombs of Chaukhandi affect the eastern part. Although constructed between the 16th and 18th centuries, it has no similarity with Mughal architecture. The Stone Age work will probably show some of the synth skills before the typical Islamic period. The construction activity of the Mughals led to surrender in the late 18th century. Since then, no special special civil construction projects have been carried out. The construction activity of the Mughals led to surrender in the late 18th century. Since then, no special special civil construction projects have been carried out. The construction activity of the Mughals led to surrender in the late 18th century. Since then, no special special civil construction projects have been carried out.

British colonial architecture During the 
British colonial period, a predominant representative building of Indo-European style, with a mixture of European and Indo-Islamic components, was developed. The Mohatta Palace and Frere Hall are one of Karachi’s more famous works.

After Independence After independence, Pakistan sought to express its newly found national identity through architecture. This is especially reflected in modern architecture such as Faisal Mosque in Islamabad. In addition, buildings with monumental importance, such as Minar-e-Pakistan in Lahore, or magnificent mausoleums erected in white marble called Mazar-e-Quaid of the founder of the country, expressed confidence in the initial state. The National Monument of Islamabad is one of the latest examples of integrating culture, independence and modern architecture.

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